Creating Custom Exception Classes for Different Error Scenarios

In a RESTful web service, it is crucial to handle errors gracefully and provide meaningful responses to clients. Spring Boot makes it easier to handle exceptions by allowing developers to create their own custom exception classes for different error scenarios. This article will guide you through the process of creating and using custom exception classes in your Spring Boot application.

Why Custom Exception Classes?

Spring Boot provides a set of default exception classes for common error scenarios such as Bad Request, Not Found, and Internal Server Error. However, in more complex applications, you may encounter specific error scenarios that require a custom exception class. Using custom exception classes helps to organize and maintain error handling logic, and also gives you the flexibility to add additional details or error codes specific to your application.

Creating Custom Exception Classes

To create a custom exception class, you need to extend either RuntimeException or Exception class provided by Java. In your custom class, you can add additional attributes or methods that are relevant to your specific error scenario.

Here's an example of a custom exception class for a resource not found scenario:

public class ResourceNotFoundException extends RuntimeException {
    public ResourceNotFoundException(String message) {

In this example, we extend the RuntimeException class and provide a constructor that accepts a message as a parameter. This message can be used to provide additional details about the error. You can also add more attributes or methods to this class based on your requirements.

Handling Custom Exceptions

Once you have created your custom exception classes, you need to handle them appropriately in your application. Spring Boot provides several ways to handle exceptions, including using @ExceptionHandler annotation. This annotation is used to define methods that handle specific exceptions.

Here's an example of handling the ResourceNotFoundException in a controller:

public class CustomExceptionHandler {

    public ResponseEntity<String> handleResourceNotFoundException(ResourceNotFoundException ex) {
        return ResponseEntity.status(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND).body(ex.getMessage());

In this example, we define a method annotated with @ExceptionHandler(ResourceNotFoundException.class) to handle the ResourceNotFoundException. Inside the method, we can customize the response based on the exception, such as returning a specific HTTP status code and a meaningful error message.


Custom exception classes allow you to handle different error scenarios effectively in your Spring Boot application. By creating custom exception classes and handling them appropriately, you can provide meaningful responses to clients and maintain a well-structured codebase.

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