Error handling and dealing with asynchronous code in TypeScript

Error handling is an important aspect of any programming language, and TypeScript provides robust tools for effectively handling errors, especially when dealing with asynchronous code. Asynchronous code, such as network requests or file operations, can introduce new challenges when it comes to error handling. However, with the right techniques and TypeScript's features, dealing with asynchronous errors can be made easier and more efficient.

Promises and async/await

Asynchronous code in TypeScript is commonly written using Promises and async/await syntax. Promises are objects that represent the eventual completion (or failure) of an asynchronous operation and provide a way to handle the result of that operation asynchronously. On the other hand, async/await is a modern syntax that provides a more readable and synchronous-like approach to writing asynchronous code.

When working with Promises and async/await, it's crucial to handle any potential errors that may occur during the execution of asynchronous operations. There are several ways to achieve this in TypeScript:

Using try/catch

One of the most common techniques is to use try/catch blocks when using async/await. The try block contains the asynchronous code that might throw an error, while the catch block is responsible for handling the error. By wrapping the asynchronous code in a try/catch block, any exceptions or rejections can be gracefully caught and handled. Here's an example:

async function fetchData(): Promise<void> {
  try {
    const response = await fetch('');
    const data = await response.json();
  } catch (error) {
    console.error('An error occurred while fetching data:', error);

In this example, the fetchData function attempts to fetch data from an API using fetch. If any errors occur during the network request or parsing the response as JSON, the catch block will handle the error and provide relevant information.

Using .catch()

Another approach is to use the .catch() method on a Promise. This method allows you to specify a callback function that will be executed if the Promise is rejected. It can be particularly useful when chaining multiple asynchronous operations together. Here's an example:

  .then(response => response.json())
  .then(data => console.log(data))
  .catch(error => console.error('An error occurred while fetching data:', error));

In this example, if any errors occur during the network request, parsing the response as JSON, or handling the data, the catch callback will be triggered and the error will be logged.

Throwing custom errors

Apart from handling errors raised by external dependencies or libraries, it's also important to create custom errors to handle specific cases or signify certain conditions in your code. TypeScript allows you to define custom error classes that extend the built-in Error class. By throwing custom errors, you can provide more meaningful error messages and structure your error handling logic effectively.

Here's an example of defining and throwing a custom error in TypeScript:

class DatabaseError extends Error {
  constructor(message: string) {
    super(message); = 'DatabaseError';

function connectToDatabase() {
  // Simulating an error
  throw new DatabaseError('Unable to connect to the database.');

try {
} catch (error) {
  if (error instanceof DatabaseError) {
    console.error('A database error occurred:', error.message);
  } else {
    console.error('An unexpected error occurred:', error);

In this example, we define a custom DatabaseError class that extends Error and provides a more specific name for the error. When connecting to the database, an error is thrown, which can be caught and handled appropriately. By using instanceof to check the type of the error, we can differentiate between different types of errors and handle them accordingly.


Handling errors and dealing with asynchronous code are essential skills for any TypeScript developer. By using techniques like try/catch blocks or the .catch() method, you can effectively handle errors that occur during asynchronous operations. Additionally, throwing custom errors allows you to provide more meaningful error messages and structure your error handling logic. With TypeScript's features, error handling in asynchronous code becomes more manageable, leading to more robust and reliable applications.

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