Implementing CRUD Operations and Handling Error Scenarios in Spring Boot

When developing a web application, one of the most common tasks is performing CRUD operations on a database. CRUD stands for Create, Read, Update, and Delete, which are the basic operations required to manage data in any system. In this article, we will explore how to implement these operations in a Spring Boot application and handle error scenarios.

Setting Up the Project

First, let's set up a Spring Boot project. You can use your favorite IDE or follow the command-line steps below:

  1. Open a terminal and navigate to the desired directory.
  2. Run the command spring init --name my-app --dependencies web my-app to create a new Spring Boot project.

Once the project is set up, we can start implementing the CRUD operations.

Creating a REST Controller

In Spring Boot, we can create REST endpoints using the @RestController annotation. Let's create a controller class called UserController for managing user data:

public class UserController {
    // TODO: Implement CRUD operations

Implementing the CRUD Operations

Create Operation

To implement the create operation, we need to handle HTTP POST requests with the /users endpoint. We can use the @PostMapping annotation for this purpose:

public User createUser(@RequestBody User user) {
    // TODO: Save the user in the database

The @RequestBody annotation is used to bind the request body to the User object. You can define the User class with the necessary properties for your application.

Read Operation

For the read operation, we can handle HTTP GET requests with the /users/{id} endpoint to retrieve a specific user. Use the @PathVariable annotation to bind the {id} path variable to the method parameter:

public User getUser(@PathVariable Long id) {
    // TODO: Retrieve the user from the database by id

Update Operation

To update a user, handle HTTP PUT requests with the /users/{id} endpoint. Similar to the read operation, use the @PathVariable annotation to get the user's ID:

public User updateUser(@PathVariable Long id, @RequestBody User user) {
    // TODO: Update the user in the database

Delete Operation

Finally, let's implement the delete operation. Handle HTTP DELETE requests with the /users/{id} endpoint:

public void deleteUser(@PathVariable Long id) {
    // TODO: Delete the user from the database

Handling Error Scenarios

In addition to the CRUD operations, it's essential to handle error scenarios gracefully. Spring Boot provides several ways to handle errors, such as global exception handling with the @ControllerAdvice annotation, custom exception classes, and validation annotations.

To handle errors globally, you can create an ExceptionHandler class and annotate it with @ControllerAdvice:

public class GlobalExceptionHandler {
    // TODO: Implement exception handling methods

Inside this class, you can define methods that handle different types of exceptions using the @ExceptionHandler annotation.

For example, to handle EntityNotFoundException, you can define the following method:

public ResponseEntity<String> handleEntityNotFoundException(EntityNotFoundException ex) {
    return ResponseEntity.status(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND).body(ex.getMessage());

In this case, if an EntityNotFoundException occurs, the method returns a ResponseEntity with a 404 status code and the exception message as the response body.


Implementing CRUD operations and handling error scenarios are integral parts of building a robust web application. In this article, we explored how to create a Spring Boot project, create a REST controller, and implement the basic CRUD operations. Additionally, we discussed handling errors using global exception handling techniques. By following these practices, you can ensure your application handles data operations effectively and provides informative error messages to users.

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