Working with File System, Operating System, and Networking in Python

Python is a versatile programming language that offers a wide range of functionalities. Among these are the capabilities to work with file systems, interact with the operating system, and perform networking tasks. In this article, we will explore these features and learn how to use them effectively.

Working with File System

Python provides several modules and functions for accessing and manipulating files and directories within a file system. One such module is os, which allows us to perform various operations related to the file system. Here are some common tasks you can accomplish with os:

File and Directory Manipulation

  • Creating a directory
import os
  • Renaming a file or directory
os.rename("myfile.txt", "newfile.txt")
  • Deleting a file or directory

File Information and Manipulation

  • Getting the current working directory
  • Checking if a file or directory exists
  • Getting file size
  • Checking if a path points to a file or directory

Python also offers other modules like shutil for more advanced file operations, glob for file pattern matching, and pathlib for object-oriented file system paths.

Interacting with the Operating System

Python provides extensive functionalities to interact with the underlying operating system. The subprocess module allows you to spawn new processes, connect to their input/output/error pipes, and obtain their return codes. Here's an example of executing a command and capturing its output:

import subprocess

result =['ls', '-l'], capture_output=True, text=True)

The os module also provides functions to interact with the operating system environment and execute commands:

  • Getting the environment variables
import os
  • Executing a command
os.system("gcc myprogram.c -o myprogram")

These features allow you to automate system tasks, execute shell commands, and interact with system-level functionalities.

Networking in Python

Python offers powerful libraries for network-related tasks. Some widely used modules are socket, http.client, and urllib. Here's a basic example of establishing a socket connection:

import socket

# Create a socket object
s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)

# Connect to a remote server
s.connect(("", 80))

# Send data
s.send(b"GET / HTTP/1.1\r\nHost:\r\n\r\n")

# Receive response
response = s.recv(1024)

# Close the socket


This example demonstrates how to establish a TCP connection and send an HTTP request. Python's networking capabilities extend far beyond this, allowing you to build complex client-server applications, implement web scraping tools, or even create your own networking protocols.


Python's file system, operating system, and networking capabilities provide developers with a powerful set of tools to work with files, interact with the operating system, and perform networking tasks. Whether you need to manipulate files, execute system commands, or establish network connections, Python's extensive libraries and modules make it a versatile language for these tasks. By mastering these features, you can unlock a wide range of possibilities and build robust applications.

noob to master © copyleft