Resampling and Frequency Conversion of Time Series Data

Time series data often contains irregularly spaced data points with different time intervals. Resampling and frequency conversion are essential techniques used to manipulate this type of data. Resampling refers to the process of changing the frequency of the time series, either by increasing or decreasing the number of data points. Let's explore how to perform resampling and frequency conversion of time series data using the powerful Pandas library in Python.

Importing Necessary Libraries

Before we delve into resampling and frequency conversion, let's import the necessary libraries, including Pandas and NumPy:

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

Creating a Time Series DataFrame

To demonstrate resampling and frequency conversion, let's first create a time series DataFrame using randomly generated data:

# Create a time series index
rng = pd.date_range('01/01/2022', periods=100, freq='D')

# Create a DataFrame with random values
data = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(100), index=rng, columns=['Value'])

In this example, we create a time series ranging from January 1, 2022, to April 10, 2022, with a daily frequency. The data DataFrame contains randomly generated values for each date.

Resampling Time Series Data

Resampling involves changing the frequency of the time series data. Pandas provides the resample() function to perform resampling operations. Here's an example of resampling our time series data from daily to monthly:

monthly = data.resample('M').sum()

In this case, we use the 'M' frequency code to resample the data on a monthly basis. The sum() function is applied to aggregate the values within each month.

Similarly, we can resample the data to other frequencies, such as weekly ('W'), quarterly ('Q'), or even custom frequencies. Resampling can also be done by taking the mean, median, or any other aggregation function using the resample() function.

Upsampling and Downsampling

Resampling can be categorized into two types: upsampling and downsampling. Downsampling refers to decreasing the frequency of the time series data, while upsampling refers to increasing the frequency.

In the previous example, we downsampled the data from daily to monthly frequency. To upsample the data, we can utilize the resample() function with a higher frequency code, such as 'H' for hourly, '5Min' for 5-minute intervals, and so on.

Handling Missing Data

When upsampling, new data points are introduced, resulting in missing values. Pandas provides several methods to handle these missing values, such as forward filling, backward filling, or interpolation. For example, if we want to fill the missing values using forward filling, we can modify our resampling code as follows:

hourly_ffill = data.resample('H').ffill()

Here, the ffill() function propagates the last observed value forward to fill the missing values.


Resampling and frequency conversion are crucial techniques for manipulating time series data. With Pandas's powerful resample() function, we can conveniently upsample or downsample time series data according to our needs. Additionally, Pandas provides various methods to handle missing data when performing upsampling.

By utilizing these techniques, you can effectively analyze and visualize time series data at different frequencies, uncover hidden patterns, and make informed decisions based on your findings.

noob to master © copyleft