Dimensionality Reduction Techniques (Principal Component Analysis, t-SNE)


In the field of machine learning, dimensionality reduction plays a crucial role by reducing the number of features or variables in a dataset. This process simplifies the analysis, decreases computation time, and helps in understanding the underlying structure of the data. Two widely used dimensionality reduction techniques are Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE). In this article, we will explore these techniques and understand how they work.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

PCA is a linear dimensionality reduction technique widely used to identify patterns and relationships in high-dimensional data. It accomplishes this by transforming the data into a new coordinate system called the principal components. These components are orthogonal to each other and capture the maximum amount of variance in the original dataset. The first principal component represents the direction of maximum variance, the second principal component represents the second largest variance, and so on.

The PCA algorithm involves the following steps:

  1. Standardize the data by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation.
  2. Compute the covariance matrix of the standardized data.
  3. Perform eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix to obtain the eigenvectors and eigenvalues.
  4. Sort the eigenvalues in descending order and select the corresponding eigenvectors.
  5. Choose the desired number of principal components and project the data onto the selected eigenvectors.

PCA is particularly useful for visualizing high-dimensional data in a lower-dimensional space, as it helps in identifying clusters and patterns that might not be apparent initially.

t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE)

t-SNE is another powerful dimensionality reduction technique, commonly used for visualizing high-dimensional data in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional space. Unlike PCA, t-SNE is a non-linear technique that aims to preserve the local structure of the data. It is effective in revealing clusters or groups of similar instances.

t-SNE algorithm works as follows:

  1. Compute pairwise distances between all instances in the high-dimensional space.
  2. Initialize random low-dimensional coordinates for each instance, usually in two or three dimensions.
  3. Iteratively refine the low-dimensional representations by minimizing the difference in pairwise similarities between the high-dimensional space and the low-dimensional space.
  4. The algorithm creates a probability distribution for each instance in both the high-dimensional and low-dimensional space, and minimizes the Kullback-Leibler divergence between these two distributions.

t-SNE is particularly useful when dealing with complex datasets, where the relationships between instances cannot be easily captured using linear techniques like PCA.


Dimensionality reduction techniques like PCA and t-SNE are invaluable tools in the field of machine learning. They help in visualizing high-dimensional data, identifying patterns, and understanding the underlying structure. While PCA is effective in capturing maximum variance and providing insights into the global structure of the data, t-SNE excels in revealing local structures and clusters. Depending on the requirements of your analysis, you can choose the appropriate technique to simplify your data and gain valuable insights.

© NoobToMaster - A 10xcoder company