Creating and Managing Threads in Java

Threads are an essential and powerful aspect of concurrent programming in Java. They allow multiple tasks or parts of a program to run concurrently, improving performance and responsiveness. In this article, we will explore how to create and manage threads in Java.

Creating Threads

There are two main ways to create threads in Java: by extending the Thread class or by implementing the Runnable interface.

Extending the Thread class

To create a thread by extending the Thread class, you need to create a new class that extends Thread and overrides the run() method. The run() method contains the code that will be executed in the new thread. Here's an example:

public class MyThread extends Thread {
    public void run() {
        // Code to be executed in the new thread

To start the thread, create an instance of the MyThread class and call its start() method:

MyThread thread = new MyThread();

Implementing the Runnable interface

Alternatively, you can create a thread by implementing the Runnable interface. The Runnable interface represents a task that can be executed concurrently. To create a thread using this approach, you need to implement the run() method from the Runnable interface. Here's an example:

public class MyRunnable implements Runnable {
    public void run() {
        // Code to be executed in the new thread

To start the thread, create an instance of the MyRunnable class, wrap it in a Thread object, and call the start() method:

MyRunnable runnable = new MyRunnable();
Thread thread = new Thread(runnable);

Thread Management

Java provides several methods to manage threads effectively.

Thread Joining

The join() method allows one thread to wait for the completion of another thread. When a thread calls join() on another thread, it waits until that thread terminates before continuing its execution. For example:

Thread otherThread = new Thread();
otherThread.join(); // Wait for otherThread to finish

Thread Sleep

The sleep() method can be used to pause the execution of a thread for a specified amount of time. It takes the number of milliseconds as a parameter. Here's an example:

try {
    Thread.sleep(2000); // Pause execution for 2 seconds
} catch (InterruptedException e) {
    // Handle interruption exception

Thread Interruption

Threads can be interrupted using the interrupt() method. This method sets the interrupt status of a thread, causing it to check for interrupt and terminate gracefully if required. Here's an example:

Thread thread = new Thread();
// ...
thread.interrupt(); // Interrupt the thread

Thread Synchronization

Thread synchronization is essential for coordinating the execution of multiple threads to prevent data races and consistency issues. Java provides synchronization mechanisms like the synchronized keyword and Lock objects to achieve thread safety.


Creating and managing threads in Java is vital for developing concurrent and responsive applications. By understanding the different ways to create threads, and utilizing thread management techniques, we can harness the power of parallelism and improve the performance of our Java programs. So go ahead, explore the world of threads, and unlock the potential of concurrent programming in Java!

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