Handling Concurrent Updates with Optimistic Locking

In the world of web applications, it is quite common to have multiple users accessing and manipulating data simultaneously. This concurrency can sometimes lead to conflicts when two or more users try to update the same data at the same time. To handle such scenarios effectively, optimistic locking comes to the rescue.

What is Optimistic Locking?

Optimistic locking is a concurrency control mechanism that allows multiple users to access and modify shared data simultaneously without explicit locking. Instead of preventing simultaneous access, it detects conflicts and resolves them gracefully.

In the context of Hibernate and JPA (Java Persistence API), optimistic locking is achieved through versioning. Each entity class that requires concurrent updates is equipped with a version attribute, which is a numeric or timestamp value. Whenever an entity is updated, its version is incremented or updated automatically by the framework.

How does Optimistic Locking work?

When a user retrieves an entity from the database, Hibernate includes the version attribute in the generated SQL query. Upon updating the entity, Hibernate compares the version retrieved from the database with the version in the entity object.

If the versions match, it implies that no other user has modified the entity in the meantime, and the update is allowed to proceed. However, if the versions do not match, it indicates that another user has already modified the entity, leading to a potential conflict.

In case of a conflict, Hibernate throws an OptimisticLockException, indicating that the entity has been modified by another user. It's then the application's responsibility to handle this exception gracefully.

Handling OptimisticLockException

When an OptimisticLockException occurs, it signifies that a concurrent update has taken place. To handle these exceptions effectively, there are a few strategies commonly adopted:

  1. Retrying the Transaction: One approach is to catch the OptimisticLockException and retry the entire transaction, allowing the user to reapply their changes after resolving the conflicts.

  2. Merging Changes: Another option is to merge the changes made by the user with the modifications already applied by another user. This can be achieved by refreshing the entity object with the latest state from the database and applying the necessary modifications before saving the changes.

  3. Informing the User: In some cases, it might be more appropriate to inform the user about the conflict and offer them choices to resolve it manually. This approach provides transparency and allows users to make well-informed decisions about managing the conflict.

Implementing Optimistic Locking in Hibernate and JPA

To use optimistic locking in Hibernate and JPA, you need to follow these steps:

  1. Add a version attribute to the entity class, annotated with @Version. This attribute can be of any numeric or timestamp type.

  2. Manage concurrent updates by wrapping the update operation within a try-catch block that handles OptimisticLockException.

  3. Choose an appropriate strategy for handling conflicts, such as retrying the transaction, merging changes, or informing the user.


Optimistic locking provides an effective approach to handle concurrent updates in web applications. By employing versioning and detecting conflicts transparently, it allows multiple users to work concurrently without explicit locking. With Hibernate and JPA, implementing optimistic locking becomes relatively straightforward, enabling the development of robust and scalable applications.

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