Control Flow Statements (if-else, switch, loops)

In programming, control flow statements are used to alter the sequence of execution in a program based on certain conditions. They allow developers to make decisions and perform specific actions accordingly. In the Go programming language, there are several control flow statements available, including if-else statements, switch statements, and various types of loops.

If-Else Statements

The if-else statement is one of the fundamental control flow statements in Go. It allows you to execute a block of code if a certain condition is true, and an alternative block of code if that condition is false. Here is the basic syntax for an if-else statement in Go:

if condition {
    // code to execute if condition is true
} else {
    // code to execute if condition is false
}

For example, let's say we want to check if a given number is positive or negative:

num := 10

if num >= 0 {
    fmt.Println("The number is positive")
} else {
    fmt.Println("The number is negative")
}

In this case, if the num variable is greater than or equal to 0, it will print "The number is positive"; otherwise, it will print "The number is negative".

Switch Statements

Switch statements provide a more concise way to express multiple if-else conditions. They allow you to choose a block of code to execute from a list of possibilities. The syntax for a switch statement in Go is as follows:

switch expression {
    case value1:
        // code to execute if expression equals value1
    case value2:
        // code to execute if expression equals value2
    default:
        // code to execute if none of the above cases match
}

Here's an example that demonstrates the usage of a switch statement:

day := "Monday"

switch day {
    case "Monday":
        fmt.Println("Start of the workweek")
    case "Friday":
        fmt.Println("End of the workweek")
    default:
        fmt.Println("Some other day")
}

In this case, if the day variable is "Monday", it will print "Start of the workweek". If it is "Friday", it will print "End of the workweek". Otherwise, it will print "Some other day".

Loops

Loops are used to repeatedly execute a block of code until a certain condition is met. In Go, there are three types of loops: for loop, while loop, and do-while loop.

For Loop

The for loop is the most commonly used loop in Go. It allows you to repeatedly execute a block of code as long as a certain condition is met. Here's the basic syntax for a for loop:

for initialization; condition; increment/decrement {
    // code to execute in each iteration
}

For example, let's say we want to print the numbers from 1 to 10:

for i := 1; i <= 10; i++ {
    fmt.Println(i)
}

This for loop will initialize i to 1, execute the code inside the loop, increment i by 1 in each iteration, and continue until i becomes greater than 10.

While Loop

Go does not have a specific while loop construct like some other programming languages. However, you can emulate its behavior using a for loop with just a condition. Here's an example:

i := 1

for i <= 10 {
    fmt.Println(i)
    i++
}

In this case, the loop will continue as long as the condition i <= 10 is true. It will print the value of i and increment it by 1 in each iteration.

Do-While Loop

Similar to the while loop, Go does not have a built-in do-while loop. However, you can achieve the same effect using an infinite for loop combined with a break statement. Here's an example:

i := 1

for {
    fmt.Println(i)
    i++

    if i > 10 {
        break
    }
}

In this case, the loop will continue indefinitely until the break statement is encountered when i becomes greater than 10. It will print the value of i and increment it by 1 in each iteration.

These control flow statements provide developers with powerful tools to control the sequence of execution in their Go programs. Incorporating if-else statements, switch statements, and loops allows for greater flexibility and control while writing reliable and efficient code in the Go programming language.

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