Best Practices for Writing Concurrent Code

Concurrency is a fundamental aspect of modern software development, allowing applications to perform tasks concurrently and efficiently utilize system resources. However, writing concurrent code can be challenging and error-prone, leading to subtle bugs and performance bottlenecks. In this article, we will explore some best practices for writing concurrent code to ensure correctness, performance, and maintainability.

1. Use Thread-safe Data Structures and Libraries

When working with concurrent code, it is crucial to use thread-safe data structures and libraries. Thread-safety ensures that multiple threads can safely access shared data without causing conflicts or data corruption. For instance, instead of using a regular ArrayList, opt for ConcurrentLinkedQueue or CopyOnWriteArrayList to avoid concurrent modification exceptions.

2. Synchronize Access to Shared Data

If a data structure or variable is shared among multiple threads, you need to synchronize access to that data to prevent race conditions. Synchronization ensures that only one thread can modify the data at a time, preventing inconsistent or incorrect results. Java provides several synchronization mechanisms like synchronized blocks, volatile variables, and Lock interfaces to achieve thread safety.

3. Minimize Lock Contention

Lock contention occurs when multiple threads compete for the same lock, resulting in reduced parallelism and performance degradation. To minimize lock contention, prefer fine-grained locks instead of using a single lock for the entire shared data structure. This technique, known as lock striping, allows multiple threads to access different parts of the data structure simultaneously, improving concurrency.

4. Use Immutable Objects

Immutable objects are thread-safe by nature, as their state cannot be modified once created. Designing your classes with immutability in mind simplifies concurrent programming, as you don't need to worry about synchronization. Immutable objects can be freely shared across threads without any concern for data corruption or race conditions.

5. Favor Executor Framework over Low-Level Thread Manipulation

Java's Executor framework provides a high-level abstraction for managing and executing tasks asynchronously. Instead of manipulating threads directly using Thread class, prefer using ExecutorService, ThreadPoolExecutor, or ForkJoinPool, which offer better resource management and control over thread execution. These abstractions handle thread creation, pooling, and workload distribution efficiently.

6. Avoid Busy Waiting

Busy waiting, where a thread repeatedly checks for a condition in a tight loop, wastes CPU resources and negatively impacts performance. Instead, prefer using higher-level concurrency mechanisms like wait-notify, locks, or blocking queues, which allow threads to sleep and wait for a signal or event, reducing CPU consumption and overall system load.

7. Use High-Level Concurrency Utilities

Java provides several high-level concurrency utilities in the java.util.concurrent package, such as CountDownLatch, CyclicBarrier, Semaphore, and Phaser. These utilities enable synchronization, coordination, and communication between multiple threads, making concurrent programming more manageable and less error-prone.

8. Perform Proper Error Handling and Resource Management

When writing concurrent code, it is essential to handle errors gracefully and release acquired resources correctly. Improper error handling or resource leaks can lead to deadlocks, crashes, or resource exhaustion. Utilize try-catch-finally blocks, try-with-resources statements, and exception handling techniques to handle errors and release resources in a controlled manner.


Writing concurrent code requires careful attention to details and understanding of various concurrency mechanisms and pitfalls. By following these best practices, you can write concurrent code that is correct, efficient, and maintainable. Remember to use thread-safe data structures, synchronize access to shared data, minimize lock contention, favor immutable objects, utilize high-level concurrency utilities, and handle errors and resources properly. Happy coding!

© NoobToMaster - A 10xcoder company