Interpolation Methods: Linear and Spline

In the field of computer graphics, interpolation plays a vital role in generating smooth and realistic visual effects. In simple terms, interpolation means filling in the gaps or missing values between known data points. It is widely used for creating smooth animations, generating realistic terrain, and rendering smooth curves and surfaces. Two commonly used interpolation methods are linear interpolation and spline interpolation. Let's understand these methods in more detail.

Linear Interpolation

Linear interpolation, also known as lerp, is the simplest form of interpolation. It is used to estimate values within a range based on known data points at the boundaries. The method assumes a straight line between two points and uses this line to estimate values at intermediate positions.

In computer graphics, linear interpolation is frequently used for smooth animation transitions between two keyframes. By linearly interpolating the position, rotation, or scale values of an object, we can smoothly transition it from one state to another. The formula for linear interpolation is as follows:

value = (1 - t) * start + t * end

Here, start and end represent the boundary values, and t is the interpolation parameter ranging from 0 to 1, indicating the position between the two points. The interpolated value depends on this parameter.

Spline Interpolation

Spline interpolation is a more advanced interpolation method that offers smoother results compared to linear interpolation. It is commonly used for generating smooth curves and surfaces. Instead of assuming a straight line between two points, spline interpolation uses a piecewise-defined function to create curves or surfaces passing through multiple data points.

The most common type of spline interpolation is the cubic spline, which fits a cubic polynomial between each pair of adjacent points. This ensures the smoothness of the curve or surface, as the derivatives at each point match with the neighboring segments. Cubic splines have four coefficients per interval, allowing more flexibility in shaping the curve.

Spline interpolation is widely used in computer graphics for tasks like generating curves for smooth character animation, designing complex shapes, and creating smooth surfaces for objects. It provides greater control and precision over the resulting curves/surfaces compared to linear interpolation.


Interpolation methods, such as linear and spline interpolation, are vital tools in computer graphics for creating smooth and realistic visual effects. While linear interpolation is simple and commonly used for smooth transitions between keyframes, spline interpolation offers greater control and smoothness for generating curves and surfaces. The choice of interpolation method depends on the specific requirements of the graphics application, allowing artists and developers to achieve their desired visual effects.

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