# Computational Geometry Algorithms

Computational geometry is a branch of computer science that deals with the design and analysis of algorithms for solving geometric problems. It focuses on developing efficient algorithms to solve various problems involving geometric entities such as points, lines, and polygons. In this article, we will explore some fundamental computational geometry algorithms using the Java programming language.

## Convex Hull

The convex hull is one of the most important concepts in computational geometry. It is the smallest convex polygon that contains all the given points. The convex hull algorithm helps in finding this polygon efficiently. There are several algorithms to solve this problem, including the Graham scan, Jarvis march, and Quickhull.

The Graham scan algorithm is commonly used to compute the convex hull of a set of points in the plane. It starts by selecting the point with the lowest y-coordinate (or the leftmost point if there are multiple points with the same y-coordinate). Then, it sorts the remaining points based on their polar angles with respect to the selected point. Finally, it iteratively builds the convex hull by adding points to it.

``````// Java code for Graham Scan algorithm
public class GrahamScan {
// TODO: Add algorithm implementation here
}``````

## Line Intersection

The line intersection problem deals with finding the intersection point of two given lines in a 2D plane. It is an important problem in computational geometry and has various applications in computer graphics and computer vision. The Bentley-Ottmann algorithm is commonly used to solve this problem efficiently.

The Bentley-Ottmann algorithm is a sweep line algorithm that processes the line segments in a plane one by one, maintaining their sorted order based on their y-coordinates. It efficiently determines all the intersection points among the line segments. The algorithm uses a binary search tree data structure to efficiently handle the event points.

``````// Java code for Bentley-Ottmann algorithm
public class BentleyOttmann {
// TODO: Add algorithm implementation here
}``````

## Voronoi Diagram

The Voronoi diagram is a partitioning of a plane into regions based on the distance to a set of points called the "seeds". Each region in the diagram corresponds to a seed point, and all locations within that region are closer to that seed than any other seed. The Voronoi diagram has various applications, including computer graphics, computational physics, and pattern recognition.

The Fortune's algorithm is commonly used to compute the Voronoi diagram efficiently. It is a sweep line algorithm that processes the points in the plane one by one. The algorithm uses a priority queue to handle the events efficiently and constructs the Voronoi diagram iteratively.

``````// Java code for Fortune's algorithm
public class FortunesAlgorithm {
// TODO: Add algorithm implementation here
}``````

## Conclusion

Computational geometry is a fascinating field that offers a wide range of algorithms and techniques to solve complex geometric problems efficiently. In this article, we explored some fundamental computational geometry algorithms using the Java programming language. Convex hull, line intersection, and Voronoi diagram are just a few examples of the problems that can be solved using computational geometry algorithms. By understanding and implementing these algorithms, programmers can enhance their problem-solving skills and tackle a variety of real-world problems effectively.