Shortest Path Algorithms

In the field of computer science, one of the fundamental problems is finding the shortest path between two nodes in a graph. This problem has numerous applications, such as navigation systems, network routing, and airline scheduling. In this article, we will explore two popular algorithms for solving the shortest path problem: Dijkstra's algorithm and the Bellman-Ford algorithm.

Dijkstra's Algorithm

Dijkstra's algorithm, named after its creator Edsger W. Dijkstra, is a greedy algorithm that aims to find the shortest path from a source node to all other nodes in a weighted graph. It works on both directed and undirected graphs with non-negative edge weights. The algorithm maintains a priority queue of nodes, prioritizing the ones with the shortest known path.

Here are the steps to implement Dijkstra's algorithm:

  1. Create a set of unvisited nodes and initialize their distances to infinity (or a very large value). Set the distance of the source node to 0.
  2. While the set of unvisited nodes is not empty, do the following:
    • Select the node with the smallest distance from the set of unvisited nodes.
    • For each adjacent node, calculate the distance through the selected node. If it is smaller than the known distance, update it.
    • Mark the selected node as visited and remove it from the set of unvisited nodes.
  3. Repeat step 2 until all nodes have been visited.

Dijkstra's algorithm guarantees to find the shortest path between the source node and all other nodes in the graph, given non-negative edge weights. However, it does not work correctly when negative weights are present.

Bellman-Ford Algorithm

The Bellman-Ford algorithm, developed by Richard Bellman and Lester Ford Jr., is another popular algorithm for finding the shortest path in a graph. Unlike Dijkstra's algorithm, Bellman-Ford can handle graphs with negative edge weights. It can also detect the presence of negative cycles in the graph.

To implement the Bellman-Ford algorithm, follow these steps:

  1. Create a distance array and set the distance of the source node to 0, and the distances of all other nodes to infinity (or a very large value).
  2. Repeat the following steps |V|-1 times, where |V| is the number of vertices in the graph:
    • For each edge in the graph, update the distances of the nodes if a shorter path has been found.
  3. Perform an additional iteration to check for negative cycles. If a distance update occurs in this iteration, it means the graph contains a negative cycle.

The Bellman-Ford algorithm is slower than Dijkstra's algorithm but can handle graphs with negative edge weights. It is commonly used in situations where negative edge weights are a possibility.


Both Dijkstra's algorithm and the Bellman-Ford algorithm are powerful tools for finding the shortest path in a graph, depending on the specific requirements of the problem at hand. Dijkstra's algorithm is efficient and guarantees correct results when dealing with non-negative edge weights, while the Bellman-Ford algorithm is more versatile, allowing for negative edge weights and negative cycle detection.

Understanding and implementing these shortest path algorithms is crucial in competitive programming and other domains that involve graph analysis. By leveraging these algorithms, programmers can create efficient solutions to various real-world problems.

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